Information and PublicationsThe Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC

Magnetic particles

Removal and recovery of substances from water with dedicated magnetic carrier particles

Magnetic particles

Examples of magnetic nanoparticle engineering

  • Wojciech Szczerba, Jan Żukrowski, Marek Przybylski, Marcin Sikora, Olga Safonova, Aleksey Shmeliov, Valeria Nicolosi, Michael Schneider, Tim Granath, Maximilian Oppmann, Marion Straßer, Karl Mandel – "Pushing up the magnetisation values for iron oxide nanoparticles via zinc doping: X-ray studies on the particle's sub-nano structure of different synthesis routes" , Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18 (2016) 25221-25229.
  • Klaus Szielasko, Amir Youssef, Dieter Sporn, Karl Mandel – "Fingerprint Signatures based on Nanomagnets as Markers in Materials for Tracing and Counterfeit Protection",  Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 18 (2016) 1-5.

  • Tobias Wehner, Karl Mandel, Michael Schneider, Gerhard Sextl, Klaus Müller-Buschbaum –
    "Superparamagnetic luminescent MOF@Fe3O4/SiO2 composite particles for signal augmentation by magnetic harvesting as potential water detectors", ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 8 (2016) 5445-5452.

  • Franziska Brede, Karl Mandel, Michael Schneider, Gerhard Sextl, Klaus Müller-Buschbaum – "Mechanochemical surface functionalisation of superparamagnetic microparticles with in-situ formed crystalline metal-complexes: a fast novel core-shell-particle formation method", Chemical Communications, 51 (2015) 8687 – 8690.

  • Karl Mandel, Marion Straßer, Tim Granath, Sofia Dembski, Gerhard Sextl – "Surfactant free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for stable ferrofluids in physiological Solutions", Chemical Communications, 51 (2015) 2863-2866.

  • Karl Mandel, Carina Kolb, Marion Straßer, Sofia Dembski, Gerhard Sextl – "Size controlled iron oxide nano octahedra obtained via sonochemistry and natural ageing", Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects,457 (2014) 27-32.

  • Karl Mandel, Frank Hutter, Carsten Gellermann, Gerhard Sextl – "Reusable superparamagnetic nanocomposite particles for magnetic separation of iron hydroxide precipitates to remove and recover heavy metal ions from aqueous Solutions", Separation and Purification Technology, 109 (2013) 144-147.

  • Karl Mandel, Frank Hutter, Carsten Gellermann, Gerhard Sextl – "Stabilisation effects of superparamagnetic nanoparticles on clustering in nanocomposite microparticles and on magnetic behaviour", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 331 (2013) 269-275.

  • Karl Mandel, Frank Hutter, Carsten Gellermann, Gerhard Sextl – "Modified Superparamagnetic Nanocomposite Microparticles for Highly Selective Hg(II) or Cu(II) Separation and Recovery from Aqueous Solutions", ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 4 (2012) 5633–5642.

  • Karl Mandel, Frank Hutter – "The magnetic nanoparticle separation Problem", Nano Today, 7 (2012) 485-487. 

  • Karl Mandel, Wojciech Szczerba, Andreas F. Thünemann, Heinrich Riesemeier, Matthias Girod, Gerhard Sextl – "Nitric acid-stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles studied with X-rays",  Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14 (2012) 1066-1075.

  • Karl Mandel, Frank Hutter, Carsten Gellermann, Gerhard Sextl – "Synthesis and stabilisation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle dispersions", Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 390 (2011) 173-178.
  • Karl Mandel, Frank Dillon, Antal A. Koos, Zabeada Aslam, Frank Cullen, Hugh Bishop, Alison Crossley, Nicole Grobert – "Customised transition metal oxide nanoparticles for the controlled production of carbon nanostructures", RSC Advances, 2 (2012) 3748 – 3752.
  • Karl Mandel, Frank Dillon, Antal A. Koos, Zabeada Aslam, Kerstin Jurkschat, Frank Cullen, Alison Crossley, Hugh Bishop, Karsten Moh, Christian Cavelius, Eduard Arzt, Nicole Grobert – "Facile, fast, and inexpensive synthesis of monodisperse amorphous Nickel-Phosphide nanoparticles of predefined size", Chemical Communications, 47 (2011) 4108-4110.
  • T. Granath, K. Mandel "Superparamagnetische Plättchen, aufgebaut aus Nanomagnetit-Silica-Komposit-Nadeln, mit optischen Farbeffekten in Dispersion",  Deutsche Patentanmeldung 10 2015 118 816.3
  • T. Wehner, K. Müller-Buschbaum, M. Schneider, K. Mandel " Superparamagnetische, lumineszierende Mikropartikel mit Metal-Organic-Framework (MOF) und Korrdinationsverbindungsanteil", Deutsche Patentanmeldung 10 2015 109 637.4
  • K. Mandel, F. Hutter, C. Gellermann: Particle for recovering an anion from an aqueous solution, EP 12 183 587.0
  • K. Mandel, F. Hutter, C. Gellermann"Verfahren zur magnetischen Abtrennung von Fällungsprodukten aus Fluiden mit Hilfe von wiederverwendbaren, superparamagnetischen Kompositpartikeln", PCT/EP2013/065018

Hollow particles

Silica-encapsulated sulfur particles
Silica-encapsulated sulfur particles

Advanced development environment to meet encapsulation tasks with manageable effort on customers‘ demand.

Specialization on processing of inorganic silica and hybrid shell materials.

Sugar alcohol encapsulated in hybrid polymeric shell (left); Hybrid polymeric hollow sphere (right)
Sugar alcohol encapsulated in hybrid polymeric shell (left); Hybrid polymeric hollow sphere (right)


  • D. Bychanok , S. Li , A. Sanchez-Sanchez , G. Gorokhov , P. P. Kuzhir , F. Y. Ogrin , A. Pasc , T. Ballweg , K. Mandel , A. Szczurek , V. Fierro , Alain Celzard – "Hollow carbon spheres in microwaves: bio inspired absorbing coating", Applied Physics Letters, 108 (2016) 013701-1 - 013701-5.
  • Thomas Ballweg, Doris Hanselmann, Carsten Gellermann, Jörn Probst – "Method for encapsulating liquid or pasty substances in a cross-linked encapsulation material". US 20120128978 A1.
  • Thomas Ballweg, Carsten Gellermann, Doris Hanselmann – "Mikroverkapselung von Schwefel auf Basis silicatischer Verbindungen". DE102012202069 A1.
  • Thomas Ballweg – Neuartiges schonendes Verkapselungsverfahren, Jahresbericht des Fraunhofer Instituts für Silicatforschung ISC, Würzburg (2010), S. 70-74

Silica particles

  • Synthesis, functionalization and processing
  • Wet chemical synthesis via sol-gel, emulsion and precipitation methods
  • Core-shell morphologies, esp. silica-passivation strategies
  • Functionalization and processing


Application examples:

  • Nanocomposites
  • Ultra-high performance concrete
  • Rubber additives
  • Porous container particles

  • Thomas Ballweg, Carsten Gellermann, Karl Mandel – "Coatings with a mole-hill structure of nanoparticle raspberry-containers for surfaces with abrasion-refreshable reservoir functionality, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces", 7 (2015) 24909–24914.

  • T. Ballweg, C. Stauch, D. Hanselmann, K. H. Haas, K. Mandel – "Nanostrukturierte Mikropartikel aus silanisierten Primärpartikeln mit steuerbarer Redispergierbarkeit und Verfahren zu deren Herstellung", Deutsche Patentanmeldung 10 2016 209 499.8

  • D. Kuhn, K.Mandel, F. Somorowsky – "Anorganische, Silica-basierte Feststoff-Schaumpartikel mit geschlossenen Innenporen, ihre Herstellung und ihre Verwendung als Füll- oder Speicherstoff",Deutsche Patentanmeldung 10 2014 113 411.7
  • Tina Oertel, Frank Hutter, Ricarda Tänzer, Uta Helbig, Gerhard Sextl – Primary particle size and agglomerate size effects of amorphous silica in ultra-high performance concrete, Cement & concrete composites 37 (2013), S.61-67 ISSN: 0958-9465.

Layered particles

Selective adsorbers and flame retardants: tailoring layered particle compositions

Layered particles

Selective phosphate adsorption with layered particles in wastewater:

  • Andreas Flegler, Michael Schneider, Johannes Prieschl, Ralph Stevens, Thomas Vinnay, Karl Mandel – "Continuous flow synthesis and cleaning of nano layered double hydroxides and the potential of the route to adjust round or platelet nanoparticle morphology", RSC Advances, 6 (2016), 57236–57244.
  • Asya Drenkova-Tuhtan*, Michael Schneider, Karl Mandel, Carsten Meyer, Carsten Gellermann, Gerhard Sextl, Matthias Franzreb, Heidrun Steinmetz – "Influence of cation building blocks of metal hydroxide precipitates on their adsorption and desorption capacity for phosphate in wastewater - a screening study",  Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 488 (2016) 145-153.
  • Asya Drenkova-Tuhtan, Karl Mandel, Anja Paulus, Carsten Meyer, Frank Hutter, Carsten Gellermann, Gerhard Sextl, Matthias Franzreb, Heidrun Steinmetz – "Phosphate recovery from wastewater using engineered superparamagnetic particles modified with layered double hydroxide ion exchangers", Water Research, 47 (2013) 5670-5677.
  • Karl Mandel, Asya Drenkova-Tuhtan, Frank Hutter, Carsten Gellermann, Heidrun Steinmetz, Gerhard Sextl – "Layered double hydroxide ion exchangers on superparamagnetic microparticles for recovery of phosphate from waste water", Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 1 (2013) 1840-1848.

The IN-LIGHT project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement n° 314233.


Dr. Karl Sebastian Mandel


Particle Technology

Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC

Neunerplatz 2
97082 Würzburg

Phone: +49 931 4100-402
Fax: +49 931 4100-399